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sedimentation for Engineers SlideShare

Sep 30 2015 · Physical characteristics of flocs I The floc density function and aluminum floc Water Research 13 5 409 419 Measured floc density based on sedimentation velocity Our real interest Flocs were prepared from kaolin clay and alum at neutral pH Floc diameters were measured by projected area 17

Effect of kaolin on floc properties for reactive orange

Kaolin had significant influence on magnesium hydroxide reactive orange floc formation and growth The results showed that average floc size reached 16 31 12 88 and 20 50 μm respectively in the rapid mixer flocculation basin and sedimentation tank when kaolin concentration was 10 mg L and reactive orange initial concentration was 0 25 g L

A METHOD FOR REMOVING TITANIUM DIOXIDE IMPURITIES

sedimentation Substantial removal ofanatase impurities can be achieved by this method mentary kaolin have been identified primarily as anatase although small amounts of other minerals flocs which are capable of penetrating and settling from the clay system

Flocculation of kaolin particles with cationic lignin

Feb 25 2019 · The structure and size of flocs formed from the interaction of kaolin with KLD were determined by a focused beam reflectance measurement FBRM The sedimentation studies conducted under gravitational by vertical scan analyzer and centrifugal force by Lumisizer analytical centrifuge revealed that KLD5 was very effective in flocculating

A METHOD FOR REMOVING TITANIUM DIOXIDE

A METHOD FOR REMOVING TITANIUM DIOXIDE IMPURITIES FROM KAOLIN R N MAYNARD N MILLMAN and J IANNICELLI J M Huber Corporation Clay Division Huber Georgia Received 15 October 1968 Abstract The removal of titanium minerals from kaolin

Formation of Flocs and Sediments in the Presence of

It was found that poly 1 2 dimethyl 5 vinylpyridinium methyl sulfate co N vinylpirrolidone promotes the formation of dense flocs and provide a complete sedimentation of the kaolin suspension at a

METHOD OF RAPID DIFFERENTIAL FLOCCULATION OF KAOLIN SLURRIES

Apr 30 1974 · A refined kaolin polymer floc forms immediately upon incorporation of the polymer D sedimentation of Kaolin Polymer Flocs Sedimentation of the kaolin polymer flocs is rapidly accomplished in settling tank 27 These flocs upon standing settle out of suspension with sedimentation rates varying from 2 to 10 minutes per inch of slurry depth used

Influence of pH Electrolytes and Polymers on Flocculation

Influence of pH Electrolytes and Polymers on Flocculation of Kaolin Particle Keywords Kaolin flocculation electrolyte polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylamide 1 INTRODUCTION flocs and very fast sedimentation In the case 1 NaCl 2 CaCl 2 3 PVA 4 PAM Figure 2 Viscosity of kaolin flocculation as a function of pH and electrolytes 1

Analysis of floc morphology in a continuous flow

The floc morphology was investigated in a continuous flow reactor in order to understand the evolution of flocs in practical flocculation and sedimentation processes in water utilities Kaolin humic acid suspension was used as the test water and polyaluminum chloride was chosen as the coagulant

Settling Velocities of Fractal Aggregates Environmental

Characterization of kaolin flocs formed by polyacrylamide as flocculation aids International Journal of Mineral Processing 2009 91 3 4 94 99 DOI 10 1016 j minpro 2009 01 003 Tao Li Xiaomin Yan Dongsheng Wang Fulin Wang Impact of preozonation on the performance of coagulated flocs

Effect of pH on the flocculation behaviors of kaolin using

Solid–liquid separations are employed to many stages of mineral processing ranging from product liquor recovery to tailings processing For most tailings and wastes the main constituents are fine clays especially for kaolin Sabah Cengiz 2004 Masliyah et al 2011 Flocculation of fine clays is highly desirable and also remains challenging in particles settlement and dewatering

Study of Adsorption and Flocculation Properties of Natural

Sedimentation is regarded as a major challenge for flocculation treatment of dinoflagellate cells The formation process of flocs was directly confirmed by the flocs structure images Figure 6 We found that most of the cells that were bound tightly to clays and sedimented in the bottom were alive

Sedimentation Characteristics of Kaolin and Bentonite in

The sedimentation characteristics of two clays namely kaolinite and bentonite were determinated at high clay 5 wt vol and electrolyte 1 N concentrations using various inorganic organic

AguaClara Cornell Research

When using the apparatus researchers mix tap water with a solution of kaolin and clay to make it dirty A coagulant solution of polyaluminum chloride is mixed with the dirty water before being pumped into the small scale flocculator The dirty particles in the water collide with the coagulant and bind together creating flocs

Reducing Sediment and Bacterial Contamination in Water

flocs were then evaluated In columns employing Kaolin as a model for sediment removal settling rates as high as 13 2 cm min were observed using GE versus a control

sedimentation kaolin flocs

sedimentation kaolin flocs Also the sedimentation velocities of KLD5 induced flocs were 184 mmh and 244 mmh while its floc size increased to 1098 µm and 1369 µm at 8 and 32 mgg of dosages respectively Chat Online

Flocculation Introduction AguaClara Textbook 0 059

Flocculation Introduction¶ Flocculation transform inorganic clays such as kaolinite smectite etc and metallic oxy hydroxides such as goethite and gibbsite and organic viruses bacteria and protozoa primary particles into flocs particle aggregates Flocculation doesn t remove any particles from suspension Instead it causes particle aggregation and then floc blankets lamellar

Characterization of floc structure and strength Role of

Apr 20 2011 · The floc formation structure and strength remain a problematic topic to be addressed clearly to guide the flocculator design To study the relationship among floc structure strength size distribution and fractal dimensions the alum–kaolin flocs formed under different coagulation stages and mechanisms were investigated at various agitation rates A new method based on the fractal theory

Breakage and Re formation of Alum Flocs Environmental

Jul 06 2004 · Residual turbidity increased after each breakage and regrowth cycle indicating a progressive reduction in sedimentation rate of the regrown flocs corresponding to the continuous monitoring results The effect of rapid stirring time was examined at the highest shear rate 520 s 1 Flocs were exposed to this rapid stirring rate for different

Breakup of Fractal Flocs in a Turbulent Flow Langmuir

The effect of additional coagulant on the re growth of alum–kaolin flocs Separation and Purification Technology 2010 74 305 309 DOI 10 1016 j seppur 2010 06 020 Wen Zheng Yu John Gregory Yan Ling Yang Min Sun Ting Liu Gui Bai Li Effect of Coagulation and Applied Breakage Shear on the Regrowth of Kaolin Flocs

Analysis of floc morphology in a continuous flow

The floc morphology was investigated in a continuous flow reactor in order to understand the evolution of flocs in practical flocculation and sedimentation processes in water utilities

NATURE AND UTILITY OF HEXAMETHYLENEDIAMINE

NATURE AND UTILITY OF HEXAMETHYLENEDIAMINE PRODUCED KAOLIN FLOC STRUCTURE WAYNE M BUNDY AND JACK L HARRISON Georgia Kaolin Company Inc Combustion Engineering Inc 25 Route 22 East Springfield New Jersey 07081 Abstract Kaolin floc structures of commercial utility are produced by adsorption of hexamethylenedi amine

Determination of the Fractal Dimension of Microbial Flocs

The fractal dimension is of ultimate importance in the description of the properties and behavior of microbial flocs in biological wastewater treatment systems However the methods for the measurement of the fractal dimension have not been well established In this study a new method is developed to determine the fractal dimension of biological flocs in activated sludge AS suspensions

Alum Coagulation Semantic Scholar

The aggregated flocs can then be removed by gravity sedimentation and or filtration Jar tests were performed to investigate the ability of alum coagulation flocculation sedimentation to remove turbidity and natural organic matter NOM The impacts of water type

NOTE CLAY SEDIMENT STRUCTURE FORMATION IN

stitute different types of flocs or aggregates in suspen sions Michaels and Bolger 1962 and can form sed Hydrite UF Georgia Kaolin Company 1990 with a median size of 0 20 p m equivalent spher ical diameter was provided by the Georgia Kaolin Each sedimentation test for the two groups of kao

Sedimentation Article about Sedimentation by The Free

sedimentation ‚sed·ə·mən′tā·shən chemistry The settling of suspended particles within a liquid under the action of gravity or a centrifuge geology The act or process of accumulating sediment in layers The process of deposition of sediment metallurgy Classification of metal powders by the rate of settling in a fluid Sedimentation

Effect of pH on the sedimentation ζ potential and

Jan 23 2003 · Michaels and Bolger reported in early studies the settling rates sediment volumes and flow properties of flocculated kaolin suspensions They stated that the primary flow units in the suspension were flocs of particles These flocs did not break down into smaller units under the mild shear forces of gravity settling

Exploration of Performance Kinetics and Mechanism of

To examine the settling property of flocs sedimentation time 5–60 min was analyzed by measuring transmittance and absorbance The results depicted in Figure 4C showed that the rate of sedimentation of kaolin clay particles by BF VB2 is quite decent The transmittance value achieved in the initial 5 min was 82 8 ± 0 18 with a F A of 96

Settling Rates and Sediment Volumes of Flocculated Kaolin

functions of kaolin concentration container dimensions and chemical composition of the aqueous phase Equations which correlated the data were derived based on a struc tural model which assumed that in a flocculated suspension the basic flow units are small clusters of particles plus enclosed water called flocs

Characterization of Alum Floc by Image Analysis

Aug 09 2000 · In situ monitoring of particle characteristics is of general interest for both natural and engineered aquatic systems and of particular interest in studying the fragile floc that typically is formed by the addition of chemical coagulants A nonintrusive photographic technique coupled with digital image processing for in situ analysis of aggregates formed by the addition of alum Al2 SO4 3

Effect of pH on the sedimentation ζ potential and

Jan 23 2003 · The average final solids content of the sediment cake φ fin was used to compare the time dependency of the different sedimentation processes Five initial solids contents were investigated as a function of pH in order to determine the influence of φ ini on the sedimentation process Fig 3 a shows on the left y axis the average final solids content φ fin as a function of pH with the ζ

Sedimentation Behavior of Coagulated Suspension of Sodium

sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension of sodium montmorillonite Compared with kaolin montmorillonite can easily produce big flocs Table 3 1 The physical properties of montmorillonite flocs are sensitive to external factors For operability it is convenient

NOTE CLAY SEDIMENT STRUCTURE FORMATION IN

CLAY SEDIMENT STRUCTURE FORMATION IN AQUEOUS KAOLINITE SUSPENSIONS KUNSONG MA AND ALAIN C PIERRE University of Alberta Edmonton Canada stitute different types of flocs or aggregates in suspen sions Michaels and Bolger 1962 and can form sed Hydrite UF Georgia Kaolin Company 1990 with a median size of 0 20 p m equivalent spher

Sediment Compressibility in Thickening of Flocculated

Polymeric flocculants are widely used to enhance particle sedimentation in the application of thickening processes to slurry dewatering When properly applied these flocculants promote the formation of large flocs which settle rapidly and provide for effective water clarification through the efficient capture of fine suspended solids

6 SETTLING TESTS Experimental Methods

flocs will still settle at their own characteristic terminal velocity Hence both discrete non flocculent and discrete flocculent settling undergo basically the same settling dynamics The difference lies in the fact that for discrete flocculent settling an additional flocculation process is

Effects of Polyethylenimine Dosages and Molecular Weights

flocculation and consolidation behaviors of kaolin slurries In this study effects of dosages and molecular weights Mw of branched PEI polymers on the flocculation rheology and consolidation aspects of 8wt Unimin kaolin slurries at pH 8 are investigated by conducting yield stress sedimentation and shear raking measurements

PPT – Sedimentation PowerPoint presentation free to

flocs Particle flocs may settle more quickly At very high concentrations particle particle forces may prevent further consolidation 8 Sedimentation Particle Terminal Fall Velocity Identify forces projected 9 Drag Coefficient on a Sphere Stokes Law turbulent boundary laminar turbulent 10 Floc Drag Flocs created in the water treatment process can

Comparison of coagulation behaviour and floc

Besides flocs formed by ALCAT had better sizes than the flocs formed by PAX 18 and PAX XL19H The rate of sedimentation was stable during coagulation with

Sedimentation Article about Sedimentation by The Free

Sedimentation industry The separation of a dilute suspension of solid particles into a supernatant liquid and a concentrated slurry If the purpose of the process is to concentrate the solids it is termed thickening and if the goal is the removal of the solid particles to produce clear liquid it

TIMECOURSE STUDY OF COAGULATION FLOCCULATION

is short it will result in the growth of larger flocs except for flocs with lower shear strength 3 1 6 Temperature effect Temperature is an effective parameter in coagulation reactions and metal coagulant chemistry 11 Poor performance of coagulation flocculation process may be the result of doing coagulation at low temperatures or

Influence of pH Electrolytes and Polymers on Flocculation

Lampang kaolin showed at pH 2 0 At lower pH values pH 2 0 and pH 4 0 there were larger floc than at pH 8 0 and pH 10 0 Because of flocculation is expected to begin at lower pH values namely edge to face that Table 1 Floc size of kaolin flocculation as function of pH electrolytes and polymers

6 SETTLING TESTS Experimental Methods

activated sludge flocs have a natural tendency to flocculate even at low concentrations Ekama et al 1997 Through subsequent processes of collision and cohesion larger flocs are formed causing their settling velocity to change over time This regime is called discrete flocculent settling Class II

Reducing Sediment and Bacterial Contamination in Water

Reducing Sediment and Bacterial Contamination in Water Using Part of the American Studies Commons Scholar Commons Citation Buttice Audrey Lynn Reducing Sediment and Bacterial Contamination in Water Using Mucilage Extracted from the Opuntia ficus indica Cactus 2009 Kaolin sedimentation measurements with NE GE and Alum 48 v

Sediment Compressibility in Thickening of Flocculated

However the flocs formed are generally of very low density and the rapid initial settling leads to a voluminous sediment containing a large amount of residual water Experimental A systematic investigation has been carried out of the long time settling behavior of kaolin clay suspensions flocculated under carefully standardized conditions

Polyacrylamide Treated Kaolin clay A Fabric Study

Polyacrylamide Treated Kaolin clay A Fabric Study A Thesis in Civil Engineering by Sung ho Kim Formation of EF flocs in the presence of excess cationic PAM molecules Sedimentation time series for kaolin PAM nanocomposite 120 mg·n

Flocculation of kaolin particles with cationic lignin

Sedimentation velocities of kaolin and KLD kaolin flocs were measured by an analytical centrifugation analyzer Lumisizer LUM Germany 61 In each measurement 1 mL of a 0 4 g L clay

PDF Sedimentation Characteristics of Kaolin and

Sedimentation Characteristics of Kaolin and Bentonite in Concentrated Solutions size and strength of flocs formed from kaolin and bentonite particles as a function of the polymer dose

AguaClara Cornell Research

The sedimentation tank in the AguaClara design is the largest and slowest system in the design This research team is working to decrease the size of each treatment plant by exploring the relationship between plate geometry and floc blanket density

Settling Velocities of Fractal Aggregates Environmental

Sedimentation and electrophoresis of a porous floc and a colloidal particle coated with polyelectrolytes Effects of humic acid on physical and hydrodynamic properties of kaolin flocs by particle image velocimetry Water Research 2011 45 13 3981 3990 DOI 10 1016 j watres 2011 05 006

Coarse Dispersions

flocs The particles in the suspension remain individually Since the flocs are groups of particles rate of sedimentation is fast Since the particles are small and remain separately the rate of sedimentation is slow Formation of sediment is quick Formation of sediment at the bottom of the container takes a

SEDIMENTATION BEHAVIOR OF A FINE KAOLINITE IN THE

SEDIMENTATION BEHAVIOR OF A FINE KAOLINITE IN THE PRESENCE OF FRESH Fe ELECTROLYTE KUNSONG MA AND ALArrq C PIERRE Department of Mining Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton Alberta Canada T6G 2G6 Abstract The sedimentation behavior of a fine kaolinite comprising a substantial proportion of colloidal

Characterization of Flocs and Floc Size Distributions

Jan 26 2016 · The analysis technique was applied to characterize flocs and floc particle size distribution as a function of coagulant dose Removal of flocs by sedimentation was characterized by imaging and the negative logarithm of the fraction of turbidity remaining after settling had a linear relationship with the logarithm of aluminum dose

Sediment Compressibility in Thickening of Flocculated

Polymeric flocculants are widely used to enhance particle sedimentation in the application of thickening processes to slurry dewatering When properly applied these flocculants promote the formation of large flocs which settle rapidly and provide for effective water clarification through the efficient capture of fine suspended solids However the flocs formed are generally of very low

Optimization of flocculation conditions for kaolin

Optimization of flocculation conditions for kaolin suspension using the composite flocculant of MBFGA1 and PAC by response surface methodology though it has a good performance on the sedimentation of flocs on the other hand the small size plays an inverse role on the sedimentation and leads to float again which influences the

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